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The Project National REDD+ project in democratic republic of Congo is designed and developed under the sector ―14 Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU), under the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) project category. The project activities are designed to Avoided Unplanned Deforestation (AUD).


The National REDD+ Project area is a major topographical feature include a large Congo river basin a major valley high plateaus three mountain ranges and a low coastal plain. The majority of the REDD+ project area is composed of the central Congo basin a plain with an average elevation of about 520 meters above sea level. The lowest point of 338 metres occurs at Lake Mai-Ndombe and the highest point of 700 metres is reached in the hills of Mobayi-Mbongo and Zongo in the north. The basin may once have been an inland sea whose only vestiges are Lakes Tumba and Mai-Ndombe in the west-central region.

The north-south Western Rift Valley the western arm of the East African Rift System forms the country’s eastern border and includes Lakes Albert Edward Kivu Tanganyika, and Mweru. This part of the country is the highest and most rugged with striking chains of mountains. The Mitumba Mountains stretch along the Western Rift Valley rising to an elevation of 2990 metres. The snow-covered peaks of the Ruwenzori Range between Lakes Albert and Edward lie astride the Ugandan border and mark the country’s highest elevation of 16763 feet (5109 metres) at Margherita Peak. The volcanic Virunga Mountains stretch across the Western Rift Valley north of Lake Kivu.

High plateaus border almost every other side of the central basin. In the north the Ubangi-Uele plateaus form the divide between the Nile and Congo river basins. Rising to between 3000 and 4000 feet (915 and 1220 metres) these plateaus also separate the central basin from the vast plains of the Lake Chad system. In the south the plateaus begin at the lower terraces of the Lulua and Lunda river valleys and rise gradually toward the east. In the southeast the ridges of the plateaus of Katanga (Shaba) province tower over the region; they include Kundelungu at 5250 feet (1600 metres) Mitumba at 4920 feet (1500 metres) and Hakansson at 3610 feet (1100 metres). The Katanga plateaus reach as far north as the Lukuga River and contain the Manika Plateau the Kibara and the Bia mountains and the high plains of Marangu.

The northern cliff of the Angola Plateau rises in the southwest while in the far west a coastal plateau zone includes the hill country of Mayumbe and the Cristal Mountains. A narrow coastal plain lies between the Cristal Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean.


The National REDD+ project area is located in the Tropical rainforest (Af) according to the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system. Tropical rain forests have a type of tropical climate in which there is no dry season—all months have an average precipitation value of at least 60mm. In rainforest climates the dry season is very short and rainfall is normally heavy throughout the year. On a given day in a tropical rainforest climate can be very similar to the next while the change in temperature between day and night may be larger than the average change in temperature during the year. The Precipitation/Rainfall in in project area is abundant ranging from 1700 to 2000 mm per year occurring usually between April –May and June –July. Temperatures are relatively stable with slight variations between day and night. The annual temperatures range from 200 Celsius –to 270 Celsius with humidity about 80 per cent. The seasons too vary towards the north of equator the wet season occurs between April to October & dry season December to February. In south of Equator, wet season is found from November to March and dry season April to October. The seasons too vary towards the north of equator the wet season occurs between April to October & dry season December to February.


The Congo River formerly Zaire River is the chief drainage system in REDD+. It raises in the Katanga plateaus and flows north and south in a great arc crossing the equator line. The river flow’s southwest to join the Atlantic Ocean near Matadi and Banana. It is the second-longest and deepest river in the world. In Sankuru province the chief rivers are Sankuru Lomami Lubefu and Lukenie. The chief rivers of Tshopo are the Congo River Lomami and Yambuya. The Tshuapa river is the chief hydro source of Tshuapa and in Equateur, the major river is Congo and Lulonga (World Bank 2017).
Social Parameters

The Democratic Republic of Congo (hereafter, DRC), the second largest tropical rainforest in the world located in the Central Africa is inhabited by 84 million people (United Nations 2018) approximately. The population here belongs to over 200 ethnic groups of which majority are Bantu peoples whereas the Pygmies are the minority constituting around 1% of the total population found in Maniema and Equator. There are about 10 large highly populated cities or towns (Table 1) and numerous villages ranging from 4-150 households settling along the roads on the forest fringes and also few in remote areas. Around 92% people realize that agriculture, charcoal production, illegal logging, bush meat sales as the main opportunity for increasing the standard of life, therefore the majority of people are involved in these activities in some way. Historically, native populations of DRC have practiced shifting cultivation in forest areas for thousands of years and depended on native biodiversity as protein supplement. Traditionally, farmers cleared an area of forest, cultivate for 2 years and allow fallow period of 5-20 years depending upon soil conditions, land availability and other factors, and returned to clear and cultivate again. A family will have at least 5-7 such lands in any point of time. The cultivation includes cassava, yams, cocoyam, banana and occasionally ground nuts. The palm oil generation is native to the African rainforests. Cultivation of Fruit trees including African mango, butter fruit, Kola nut – the chief ingredient in Coca-Cola, mangosteen, Njangsa, tamarind, ber fruit and African palm oil have formed significant source of the agro-forestry Project in DRC. DRC continues to be a destination country for immigrants, in spite of recent declines in their numbers. Immigration is very diverse in nature; refugees and asylum-seekers. There are no accurate statistics and extremely difficult to obtain reliable migration data. Additionally, the countries large and small mine operations attract migrant workers from Africa and beyond. There is also considerable migration for commercial activities from other African countries and the rest of the world, but these movements are not well studied. The population in the DRC, which is blessed with vast land and abundant natural resources, 75% still live under the poverty line, and the economic inequality among the population is widening. As indicated by the Gender Inequality Index and SIGI, gender relations in the DRC are determined by strong male-dominant gender norms. The Women‘s labour participation is high (70.7%), and almost the same as that of men (73.2%); however, women are in a more difficult situation than men. Women‘s unemployment rate is low when compared with men. Women‘s labour is concentrated in agriculture and the informal sector and gender norms limit their access to productive assets such as land and capital. The issue of gender-based violence against women in the DRC, and especially sexual violence in conflicts is widely known. Marriage is also prescribed by unequal gender relations and women‘s rights are often not protected; after the death of the husband, the husband‘s family may take away the couple‘s assets from the widow. Early marriage of girls is prevalent. Early marriage results in the low education levels of women resulting from dropping out of school, imbalanced power relations at home, and reproductive health problems. Violence against women is also a health issue, causing serious health problems to victims such as HIV infection. The Unemployment rate is a major issue and the government has been trying to address it by establishing policies, plans, and councils where youth can express their opinions. However, several ministries are involved in vocational training without having set up a unified vocational training system. Many vocational training institutions issue own certificates without harmonizing training contents. The women participation in such trainings are very low. The children‘s in DRC is often devoid of education due to lack of infrastructure and low quality education in several areas of the DRC. Lack of developed roads, transportation facilities and less house hold income after restrict children is getting education. In general, the education is restricted to people who can afford huge fees. Health problems have been a long-standing issue limiting development in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo). Medical facilities are severely limited, medical materials are in short supply. An adequate supply of prescription or over-the-counter drugs in local stores or pharmacies is also generally not available. Malaria is a major health problem in the DR Congo. Malaria is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality, accounting for more than 40 percent of all outpatient visits and for 19 percent of deaths among children fewer than five years of age. Given that the majority of the population lives in high transmission zones. HIV/Aids are the most serious health problem in the DR Congo due to the incurable nature of the disease. In near future, UNAID estimates that several million people will be living with HIV/AIDS, for an overall adult HIV prevalence of 4.2%. Life expectancy in the DR Congo dropped significantly as a result of HIV/AIDS. Cholera has very high incidence and mortality rate in DRC due to lack of resources and inadequate surveillance system. Ebola incidence is also very high in DRC and has taken toll on several thousands of people in DRC. Therefore, the disease outbreaks are a potential hazard for the people living in and around the project areas. Hence, KMS interventions in promoting healthcare facilities and material support to the communities and improve their health conditions.


The KMS REDD+ Project has the following chief vegetation type’s viz. Tropical and subtropical grassland savanna shrub-land tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forest. These vegetation types are reclassified to dense forest and sparse forest in this project.